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OpenSSL Functions

简介

This module uses the functions of » OpenSSL for generation and verification of signatures and for sealing (encrypting) and opening (decrypting) data. OpenSSL offers many features that this module currently doesn't support. Some of these may be added in the future.

需求

In order to use the OpenSSL functions you need to install the » OpenSSL package. PHP between versions 4.0.5 and 4.3.1 will work with OpenSSL >= 0.9.5. Other versions (PHP <=4.0.4 and >= 4.3.2) require OpenSSL >= 0.9.6.

Warning

You are strongly encouraged to use the most recent OpenSSL version, otherwise your web server could be vulnerable to attack.

安装

To use PHP's OpenSSL support you must also compile PHP --with-openssl[=DIR].

Note: Note to Win32 Users In order for this extension to work, there are DLL files that must be available to the Windows system PATH. See the FAQ titled "How do I add my PHP directory to the PATH on Windows" for information on how to do this. Although copying DLL files from the PHP folder into the Windows system directory also works (because the system directory is by default in the systems PATH), it is not recommended. This extension requires the following files to be in the PATH: libeay32.dll
Additionally, if you are planning to use the key generation and certificate signing functions, you will need to install a valid openssl.cnf on your system. As of PHP 4.3.0, we include a sample configuration file in the openssl folder of our win32 binary distribution. If you are using PHP 4.2.0 or later and are missing the file, you can obtain it from » the OpenSSL home page or by downloading the PHP 4.3.0 release and using the configuration file from there. PHP will search for the openssl.cnf using the following logic:

  • the OPENSSL_CONF environmental variable, if set, will be used as the path (including filename) of the configuration file.
  • the SSLEAY_CONF environmental variable, if set, will be used as the path (including filename) of the configuration file.
  • The file openssl.cnf will be assumed to be found in the default certificate area, as configured at the time that the openssl DLL was compiled. This is usually means that the default filename is c:\usr\local\ssl\openssl.cnf.

In your installation, you need to decide whether to install the configuration file at c:\usr\local\ssl\openssl.cnf or whether to install it someplace else and use environmental variables (possibly on a per-virtual-host basis) to locate the configuration file. Note that it is possible to override the default path from the script using the configargs of the functions that require a configuration file.

运行时配置

本扩展模块在 php.ini 中未定义任何配置选项。

资源类型

Key/Certificate parameters

Quite a few of the openssl functions require a key or a certificate parameter. PHP 4.0.5 and earlier have to use a key or certificate resource returned by one of the openssl_get_xxx functions. Later versions may use one of the following methods:

  • Certificates

    1. An X.509 resource returned from openssl_x509_read()
    2. A string having the format file://path/to/cert.pem; the named file must contain a PEM encoded certificate
    3. A string containing the content of a certificate, PEM encoded

  • Public/Private Keys

    1. A key resource returned from openssl_get_publickey() or openssl_get_privatekey()
    2. For public keys only: an X.509 resource
    3. A string having the format file://path/to/file.pem - the named file must contain a PEM encoded certificate/private key (it may contain both)
    4. A string containing the content of a certificate/key, PEM encoded
    5. For private keys, you may also use the syntax array($key, $passphrase) where $key represents a key specified using the file:// or textual content notation above, and $passphrase represents a string containing the passphrase for that private key

Certificate Verification

When calling a function that will verify a signature/certificate, the cainfo parameter is an array containing file and directory names that specify the locations of trusted CA files. If a directory is specified, then it must be a correctly formed hashed directory as the openssl command would use.

预定义常量

以下常量由本扩展模块定义,因此只有在本扩展模块被编译到 PHP 中,或者在运行时被动态加载后才有效。

Purpose checking flags

X509_PURPOSE_SSL_CLIENT (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_SSL_SERVER (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_NS_SSL_SERVER (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_SMIME_SIGN (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_SMIME_ENCRYPT (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_CRL_SIGN (integer)
X509_PURPOSE_ANY (integer)

Padding flags

OPENSSL_PKCS1_PADDING (integer)
OPENSSL_SSLV23_PADDING (integer)
OPENSSL_NO_PADDING (integer)
OPENSSL_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING (integer)

Key types

OPENSSL_KEYTYPE_RSA (integer)
OPENSSL_KEYTYPE_DSA (integer)
OPENSSL_KEYTYPE_DH (integer)

PKCS7 Flags/Constants

The S/MIME functions make use of flags which are specified using a bitfield which can include one or more of the following values:

PKCS7 CONSTANTS
Constant Description
PKCS7_TEXT Adds text/plain content type headers to encrypted/signed message. If decrypting or verifying, it strips those headers from the output - if the decrypted or verified message is not of MIME type text/plain then an error will occur.
PKCS7_BINARY Normally the input message is converted to "canonical" format which is effectively using CR and LF as end of line: as required by the S/MIME specification. When this options is present, no translation occurs. This is useful when handling binary data which may not be in MIME format.
PKCS7_NOINTERN When verifying a message, certificates (if any) included in the message are normally searched for the signing certificate. With this option only the certificates specified in the extracerts parameter of openssl_pkcs7_verify() are used. The supplied certificates can still be used as untrusted CAs however.
PKCS7_NOVERIFY Do not verify the signers certificate of a signed message.
PKCS7_NOCHAIN Do not chain verification of signers certificates: that is don't use the certificates in the signed message as untrusted CAs.
PKCS7_NOCERTS When signing a message the signer's certificate is normally included - with this option it is excluded. This will reduce the size of the signed message but the verifier must have a copy of the signers certificate available locally (passed using the extracerts to openssl_pkcs7_verify() for example).
PKCS7_NOATTR Normally when a message is signed, a set of attributes are included which include the signing time and the supported symmetric algorithms. With this option they are not included.
PKCS7_DETACHED When signing a message, use cleartext signing with the MIME type multipart/signed. This is the default if you do not specify any flags to openssl_pkcs7_sign(). If you turn this option off, the message will be signed using opaque signing, which is more resistant to translation by mail relays but cannot be read by mail agents that do not support S/MIME.
PKCS7_NOSIGS Don't try and verify the signatures on a message

Note: These constants were added in 4.0.6.

Signature Algorithms

OPENSSL_ALGO_SHA1 (integer)
Used as default algorithm by openssl_sign() and openssl_verify().
OPENSSL_ALGO_MD5 (integer)
OPENSSL_ALGO_MD4 (integer)
OPENSSL_ALGO_MD2 (integer)

Note: These constants were added in 5.0.0.

Ciphers

OPENSSL_CIPHER_RC2_40 (integer)
OPENSSL_CIPHER_RC2_128 (integer)
OPENSSL_CIPHER_RC2_64 (integer)
OPENSSL_CIPHER_DES (integer)
OPENSSL_CIPHER_3DES (integer)

Note: These constants were added in 4.3.0.

Version constants

OPENSSL_VERSION_TEXT (string)
OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER (integer)

Note: These constants were added in 5.2.0.

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